Die UEFA Nations League /19 der Männer ist die erste Austragung dieses Turniers. Sie findet in drei Phasen vom 6. September bis zum Der aktuelle Spieltag und die Tabelle der italienischen Serie A / Alle Spiele und Live Ergebnisse des Spieltages im Überblick. Die Liga A der UEFA Nations League /19 ist die erste Austragung der höchsten Division innerhalb dieses Wettbewerbs. Sie begann am 6. September
Real Madrid dominated La Liga from the s through the s, when Barcelona, Athletic Bilbao, and Real Sociedad won the league twice in those years.
From the s onward, Barcelona has dominated La Liga, winning 15 titles. La Liga is one of the most popular professional sports leagues in the world, with an average attendance of 26, for league matches in the —18 season.
This is the sixth-highest of any domestic professional sports league in the world and the third-highest of any professional association football league in the world, behind the Bundesliga , and the Premier League.
The competition format follows the usual double round-robin format. During the course of a season, which lasts from August to May, each club plays every other club twice, once at home and once away, for 38 matchdays.
Teams receive three points for a win, one point for a draw, and no points for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points, with the highest-ranked club at the end of the season crowned champion.
If points are equal between two or more clubs, the rules are: The number of places allocated to Spanish clubs in UEFA competitions is dependent upon the position a country holds in the UEFA country coefficients , which are calculated based upon the performance of teams in UEFA competitions in the previous 5 years.
Currently the ranking of Spain and de facto La Liga is 1st. They were also runners-up in and In , the teams in the Republican area of Spain, with the notable exception of the two Madrid clubs, competed in the Mediterranean League and Barcelona emerged as champions.
Nevertheless, the governing body of Spanish football has not made an outright decision yet. The club subsequently won their first Liga title and retained it in The young, pre-war squad of Valencia had also remained intact and in the post-war years matured into champions, gaining three Liga titles in , , and Sevilla also enjoyed a brief golden era, finishing as runners-up in and before winning their only title to date in During his playing career with them, he scored goals, won the inaugural La Liga title and five Copa Del Rey.
In , Samitier returned to Barcelona as a coach and guided them in winning their second La Liga title in In , FC Barcelona made history yet again by winning five distinctive trophies in one year.
The s also saw the beginning of the Real Madrid dominance. During the s, s, and s, there were strict limits imposed on foreign players.
In most cases, clubs could only have three foreign players in their squads, meaning that at least eight local players had to play in every game.
Madrid won the first division in , 21 years later since , and retained its title in They were winners again in and , with only Athletic Bilbao interrupting their sequence.
However, their only European Cup triumph during this period came in , a sharp contrast to their five successive victories in the competition from Of the other clubs, only Valencia in and the Johan Cruyff -inspired Barcelona of broke the dominance of Real Madrid.
The Madrid winning sequence was interrupted more significantly in when Real Sociedad won their first-ever title. They retained it in , and their two in a row was followed by fellow Basque team Athletic Bilbao, who won back-to-back titles in and Johan Cruyff returned to Barcelona as manager in , and assembled the legendary Dream Team .
When Cruyff took hold of this Barcelona side they had only won two La Liga titles in the past 11 years. Cruyff, who knew the history of FC Barcelona as a player, did not want history to repeat itself.
He decided to build a team composed of international stars and La Masia graduates in order to restore Barcelona to their former glorious days.
The s also continued the success of FC Barcelona. In the —05 season, Barcelona won their first title of the new century under the brilliance of Ronaldinho.
Barcelona retained the title and won it again in the season, as well as winning the UEFA Champions League against Arsenal , achieving their second European Double.
A year later in the season, Barcelona replicated the same feat under coach Tito Vilanova matching the point record. LIGA is a German acronym for Li thographie, G alvanoformung, A bformung Lithography , Electroplating , and Molding that describes a fabrication technology used to create high- aspect-ratio microstructures.
The LIGA consists of three main processing steps; lithography, electroplating and molding. LIGA was one of the first major techniques to allow on-demand manufacturing of high-aspect-ratio structures structures that are much taller than wide with lateral precision below one micrometer.
In the process, an X-ray sensitive polymer photoresist, typically PMMA , bonded to an electrically conductive substrate, is exposed to parallel beams of high-energy X-rays from a synchrotron radiation source through a mask partly covered with a strong X-ray absorbing material.
Chemical removal of exposed or unexposed photoresist results in a three-dimensional structure, which can be filled by the electrodeposition of metal.
The resist is chemically stripped away to produce a metallic mold insert. The mold insert can be used to produce parts in polymers or ceramics through injection molding.
The technique enables microstructures with high aspect ratios and high precision to be fabricated in a variety of materials metals, plastics, and ceramics.
Many of its practitioners and users are associated with or are located close to synchrotron facilities. Because heating and transmittance are not an issue in optical masks, a simple chromium mask can be substituted for the technically sophisticated X-ray mask.
However, UV LIGA is not as effective at producing precision molds and is thus used when cost must be kept low and very high aspect ratios are not required.
X-ray masks are composed of a transparent, low- Z carrier, a patterned high- Z absorber, and a metallic ring for alignment and heat removal. Due to extreme temperature variations induced by the X-ray exposure, carriers are fabricated from materials with high thermal conductivity to reduce thermal gradients.
Currently, vitreous carbon and graphite are considered the best material, as their use significantly reduces side-wall roughness. Silicon, silicon nitride, titanium, and diamond are also in use as carrier substrates but not preferred, as the required thin membranes are comparatively fragile and titanium masks tend to round sharp features due to edge fluorescence.
Absorbers are gold, nickel, copper, tin, lead, and other X-ray absorbing metals. Masks can be fabricated in several fashions.
The most accurate and expensive masks are those created by electron beam lithography, which provides resolutions as fine as 0. Due to the small size of the market, each LIGA group typically has its own mask-making capability.
Future trends in mask creation include larger formats, from a diameter of mm to mm , and smaller feature sizes.
The starting material is a flat substrate , such as a silicon wafer or a polished disc of beryllium, copper, titanium, or other material.
The substrate, if not already electrically conductive, is covered with a conductive plating base, typically through sputtering or evaporation.
The fabrication of high-aspect-ratio structures requires the use of a photoresist able to form a mold with vertical sidewalls.
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